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帕韦尔杜罗夫 俄罗斯的扎克伯格

本文摘要:In the journalistic shorthand of his native Russia, Pavel Durov is unfailingly described as his country’s Mark Zuckerberg. Though flattering, the comparison with the Facebook founder does not seem quite right to me: it overstates Durov’s commercial success while, if anything, understating his personal accomplishments.在帕韦尔尠坧夫(Pavel Durov)的祖国俄罗斯,新闻报道仍然将称之为他为俄罗斯的马克丠克伯格(Mark Zuckerberg)。


In the journalistic shorthand of his native Russia, Pavel Durov is unfailingly described as his country’s Mark Zuckerberg. Though flattering, the comparison with the Facebook founder does not seem quite right to me: it overstates Durov’s commercial success while, if anything, understating his personal accomplishments.在帕韦尔尠坧夫(Pavel Durov)的祖国俄罗斯,新闻报道仍然将称之为他为俄罗斯的马克丠克伯格(Mark Zuckerberg)。尽管这是恭维之语,将他与Facebook创始人比起在我看来并不十分合理:这高估了杜罗夫的商业顺利,却没充分反映出有他的个人成就。

Like Zuckerberg, the boyish tech entrepreneur from St Petersburg created his country’s most popular social network, VKontakte, which revolutionised the Russian internet. But in 2011 Durov fell foul of the Kremlin by refusing to close down the pages of opposition activists as protests swelled against the returning president, Vladimir Putin. He became a target of increasing police harassment and was, in effect, forced to sell out of VKontakte to pro-Kremlin investors. Fired as the company’s chief executive in 2014, he quit Russia with $300m in his pocket and founded a new messaging app, Telegram. He now wanders the world preaching the virtues of secure communications and libertarianism.像扎克伯格一样,这位来自圣彼得堡、带着孩子气的科技企业家创立了俄罗斯最不具人气的社交网络VKontakte,为俄罗斯互联网带给了革命性变化。但在2011年,抗议普京重任总统的声浪不断扩大之时,由于拒绝接受重开反对派活动人士的页面,杜罗夫得罪了克里姆林宫。


Comparisons aside, Durov has certainly packed a lot into his 30 years and retains grandiose plans for the future. So I am a little surprised when a slim, unassuming man slips into a sleek Italian restaurant in Mayfair and introduces himself in quiet, near-flawless English. His appearance, all-black clothing and rebellious instincts have led to innumerable comparisons with the mysterious action hero Neo in the Matrix films. But Durov’s pale complexion, jet black hair, and doe eyes remind me more of a dreamy prince in a Disney cartoon.充满著这样的较为,杜罗夫在他30年的人生里已完成的事情毫无疑问不少,他对未来还有不少宏大计划。所以,当一个纤瘦谦虚的人,悄悄步入伦敦梅菲尔区(Mayfair)一家古朴的意大利餐厅,音节用几近极致的英语讲解自己时,我有点惊讶。他的外貌、一身黑衣的装扮和放纵的本性像极了电影《黑客帝国》(Matrix)中谜样的动作英雄尼奥(Neo)。

但是他白皙的肤色、乌黑的头发以及小鹿般的眼睛,又让我实在他更加像迪斯尼(Disney)卡通片里的梦幻王子。He tells me that he chose Quattro Passi for lunch because he is staying nearby and likes the cooking. “Italian food is simple and healthy, and it’s easier for a vegetarian to choose something from the menu,” he says. It perhaps also reminds him of his childhood: Durov spent several years in Italy, in Turin, because his father Valery (who holds a PhD in philology and is an expert on ancient Rome) was employed there. “I was born in the Soviet Union. Then when I was three or four we moved to Italy and by the time we got back there was no more Soviet Union,” he says.他告诉他我,之所以自由选择来Quattro Passi不吃午餐,是因为他就住在这附近,而且他讨厌这里的菜。


我三四岁的时候,我家搬了意大利,等我们回来的时候,苏联早已不复存在了,”他说道。The restaurant is a hedge fund manager’s heaven of silver decorations, mirrors and taupe furnishings. We study the menu. Durov orders burrata and plain spaghetti with cheese for the main course. “White?” the waitress enquires. “White and, please, no salt or a minimal amount of salt. Thank you,” he replies. After asking whether they have any rye bread (they have none), he orders some homemade brown bread instead. This makes my order of minestrone and monkfish with cherries seem racy.这家店备有对冲基金经理最青睐的银色内饰、镜子和灰褐色家具。




这让我点的意大利美浓菜汤和鮟鱇鱼配上樱桃变得有些过于喜乐了。I ask him about his lifestyle as an international nomad. Durov, who says he is addicted to big cities but does not like the concept of countries, explains how he and a core team of four engineers from Telegram take their work with them round the world. “We choose a place and stay there for two or three months, then we relocate to the next place. Adiós.”我告知他这种浪迹各国的生活方式怎么样。

杜罗夫说道,大城市让他著迷,但他不讨厌“国家”这个概念,说明了为什么他和由4名工程师构成的Telegram核心团队带着工作环游世界。“我们选一个地方,在那里逗留两到三个月,然后说道声妳,再行去下一个地方。”He travels on a passport from St Kitts and, over the past year, he and his team have worked out of San Francisco, New York, London, Paris and Berlin, and he is off again soon to Finland. The peripatetic lifestyle also suits his business, given that one of its great selling points is security. “Since the day we started Telegram 18 months ago we haven’t disclosed a single byte of user data to third parties, including government officials.”他用于圣基茨和尼维斯(St Kitts and Nevis)发给的护照旅行。


”Though Telegram is registered as both a British and a US company, it does not disclose where it rents offices or the legal entities it uses to rent them. This helps shelter his team from any “unnecessary influence”, he says, and enables the company to protect its 62m users from data requests from government. Telegram uses a distributed network of servers in several different jurisdictions, rather than a central hub like most other messaging apps.尽管Telegram是一家同时在英国和美国登记的公司,该公司未透露其租给的办公地点坐落于何处,或者用来租给这些办公地点的法人实体是什么。这有助其团队避免“不必要的影响”,杜罗夫说道,这可以使公司维护其6200万用户,免遭被政府索取数据。不同于用于一个中央枢纽的大部分消息应用于,Telegram的服务器网络产于在好几个有所不同司法管辖区。

The initial impulse for both of his companies has stemmed, Durov says, from satisfying a personal need: the wish to communicate with his university friends in the case of VKontakte, and the necessity of creating a secure messaging system with Telegram. He had the idea for the latter after he came under intense scrutiny from the Russian authorities in 2011. Armed police attempted to storm his apartment in St Petersburg and he realised that his communications were being tapped. He wanted a means of communicating securely with his 34-year-old brother Nikolai, a mathematician and engineer who helped found VKontakte and later developed the encryption code for the Telegram app.杜罗夫说道,他创立两家公司的最初动力,是符合个人市场需求:想要和大学朋友交流的心愿使他创立了VKontakte,打造出一个安全性消息系统的必要性让他创立了Telegram。他的后一个点子是在2011年俄罗斯政府对他展开森严监控后打消的。当时备有武器的警员企图闯进他在圣彼得堡的公寓,他意识到自己的通讯被监听了。他想一种能与哥哥安全性通讯的方式。

杜罗夫的哥哥尼古拉(Nikolai) 34岁,是一名数学家和工程师,他协助杜罗夫创立了VKontakte,后来又为Telegram应用于研发了加密代码。“Our right for private communication and privacy is more important than the marginal threats that some politicians would like to make us afraid of. If you get rid of emotion for a minute and think about the threat of terrorism statistically, it’s not even there. The probability that you will slip on a wet floor in your bathroom and die is a thousand times higher than the probability of you dying as a result of terrorism.”“我们展开私人通讯和保留隐私的权利比一些政治人士想要让我们为之感到恐惧的微不足道的威胁最重要得多。


”But those statistics can be used to support different conclusions, I counter. Maybe they show that the security services are gleaning vital information from data intercepts and are preventing many more terrorist attacks. Doesn’t end-to-end encryption, such as he uses, only tilt the field in the terrorist’s favour?我明确提出赞成,这些统计数据也可以被借以反对有所不同的结论。它们也许指出,安全部门通过数据撷取收集到了关键信息,大大避免了更好恐怖袭击再次发生。

端对端加密技术,正如杜罗夫所用于的,怎么会不是意味着为恐怖分子生产了有利条件吗?He argues it is simplistic to assume the relatively rare occurrence of terrorist incidents in the west is necessarily a sign of government’s effectiveness. Given the ease of committing terrorist acts, maybe it reflects the lack of terrorist intent. “I think we in western civilisation tend to overestimate our own abilities to solve the problems and challenges that we face,” he says.他回应,指出西方恐怖事件比较很少再次发生必定表明出有政府压制能干,这种观点过分形式化了。考虑到实行恐怖主义行动的更容易程度,也许这体现了恐怖主义意图并没那么多。“我指出,西方文明中的我们偏向于低估我们解决问题所面临问题和挑战的能力,”杜罗夫回应。


For example, he continues, the pharmaceuticals industry persuades us we need to take pills to keep healthy. “But I don’t use anything pharmaceutical companies have to offer and I’m still healthy. Maybe we shouldn’t be too dependent on the advertisements companies want us to believe. Maybe we shouldn’t be too dependent on politicians trying to make us believe that we are safe only because of their actions.”他之后说道,比如,制药行业劝说我们坚信,我们必须出院才能维持身体健康。“但我从来不服用制药公司生产的任何东西,我仍然很身体健康。

也许我们不应当过于倚赖公司想我们坚信的广告,也不应当过于倚赖政治人士——他们想我们坚信,我们之所以安全性,几乎是因为他们采行了行动。”Moreover, if the security services really want to access a user’s data, he says, they can try going to Google and Apple. “Since there is always the probability that these companies can allow the security agencies direct access to your device, nobody can be 100 per cent sure, but one thing Telegram does is make mass surveillance impossible.”此外,杜罗夫回应,如果安全部门知道想要提供一位用户的数据,它们可以试着去找谷歌(Google)和苹果(Apple)。




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